Can you start a sentence with Per?
Is it okay to begin a sentence with "As per" as in “As per the director's order you are fired”? “As per” is a horrible nonsensical colloquial phrase that, in my opinion, has no place in educated writing. The expression “in accordance with” would be far better - and yes, it can be used at the beginning of a sentence.
What PER stands for?
Per through; by means of; through the agency of; by; for; for each; as, per annum; per capita, by heads, or according to individuals; per curiam, by the court; per se, by itself, of itself. Per is also sometimes used with English words.
What does PWR stand for?
Pressurized Water Reactor
What does Per say actually mean?
'Per se' is a Latin term which literally means, “by itself”, “in itself” or “of itself”. This means you're taking something out of its context to describe it in its own right. It is often misused in everyday speech It has become a conversational buzzword. It's a way for people to fill in gaps between ideas.
What does it mean if you've committed a per se antitrust violation?
In a typical situation, if two competitors agree to fix prices or to split a market (perhaps they will agree to limit their competition for each other's customers), they commit what is called a per se antitrust violation.
Is price fixing illegal?
When competitors agree to restrict competition, the result is often higher prices. Accordingly, price fixing is a major concern of government antitrust enforcement. A plain agreement among competitors to fix prices is almost always illegal, whether prices are fixed at a minimum, maximum, or within some range.
What is a per se violation of the Sherman Act?
Violations "per se": these are violations that meet the strict characterization of Section 1 ("agreements, conspiracies or trusts in restraint of trade"). A per se violation requires no further inquiry into the practice's actual effect on the market or the intentions of those individuals who engaged in the practice.
What is an example of price fixing?
This involves an agreement by competitors to set a minimum or maximum price for their products. For example, electronics retail companies may collectively fix the price of televisions by setting a price premium or discount.
What is price fixing called?
Price fixing is permitted in some markets but not others; where allowed, it is often known as resale price maintenance or retail price maintenance. It is worth noting that not all similar prices or price changes at the same time are price fixing. These situations are often normal market phenomena.
What type of crime is price fixing?
Price fixing, bid rigging, and other forms of collusion are illegal and are subject to criminal prosecution by the Antitrust Division of the United States Department of Justice.
What is collusion and price fixing?
Business collusion is an agreement between businesses that fraudulently prevents other businesses from being able to compete in the open market. Price fixing violates competition law because it controls the market price or the supply and demand of a good or service to customers.
What are the two types of collusion?
Two Types of Collusion Collusion can take one of two forms--explicit collusion and implicit collusion. Explicit Collusion: Also termed overt collusion, this occurs when two or more firms in the same industry formally agree to control the market.
What are examples of collusion?
Examples of collusion. After a period of low milk, butter and cheese prices, supermarkets such as Asda and Sainsbury's colluded with Dairy suppliers, Dairy Crest and Wiseman Dairies to increase the price of milk, cheese and other dairy products in supermarkets.
What are the main obstacles to collusion?
The main obstacles to collusion are demand and cost differences (which result in different points of equality of MR and MC); the number of firms (the more firms, the lower the possibility of getting together and reaching sustainable agreement); cheating (it pays to cheat by selling more below the agreed-on price— ...
What are the positive effects of large oligopolists advertising?
What are the positive effects if large oligopolists do not advertise? The lack of manipulative information would reduce the chance of a firm becoming a monopoly. A reduction in advertising would help lower prices and possibly increase product output.
What are the main obstacles to collusion quizlet?
Obstacles: uncertainties of non conclusive, kinked demand and the possibility of a price war. cartels and similar collusive arrangements are difficult to establish and maintain.
Why do oligopolies exist?
The biggest reason why oligopolies exist is collaboration. Firms see more economic benefits in collaborating on a specific price than in trying to compete with their competitors. By controlling prices, oligopolies are able to raise their barriers to entry.
How do oligopolies affect consumers?
The economic and legal concern is that an oligopoly can block new entrants, slow innovation, and increase prices, all of which harm consumers. Firms in an oligopoly set prices, whether collectively—in a cartel—or under the leadership of one firm, rather than taking prices from the market.
What are examples of oligopolies?
Examples of oligopoly abound and include the auto industry, cable television, and commercial air travel. Oligopolistic firms are like cats in a bag. They can either scratch each other to pieces or cuddle up and get comfortable with one another.
What are the 4 characteristics of oligopoly?
Four characteristics of an oligopoly industry are:
- Few sellers. There are just several sellers who control all or most of the sales in the industry.
- Barriers to entry. It is difficult to enter an oligopoly industry and compete as a small start-up company. ...
- Interdependence. ...
- Prevalent advertising.
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